Tuesday, December 22, 2015

144. Meaning of word jat

According to the dictionaries, Jut means a race, a tribe, or a particular race so called, while Jut means manner, kind, and likewise matted hair. But throughout the Punjab Jut also implies a fleece. a fell of hair ; and in Upper Sindh a Jut now means a rearer of camels or of black, cattle, or a shepherd in opposition to a husbandman. In the Punjab gene rally a Jut means still a villager, a rustic par excellence, as one of the race by far the most numerous, and as opposed to one engaged in trade or handicraft. This was observed by the author of the Dabistan nearly two centuries ago(£><ifti5tan, ii. 252.); but since the Jut* of Lahore and the Jats of the Jumna have acquired power, the term is becoming more restricted, and is occasionally em ployed to mean simply one of that particular race. The Juts merge on one side into the Rajpoots, and on the other into the Afghans, the names of the Jut subdivisions being the same with those of Rajpoots in the east, and again with those of Afghans, and even JJelotches, in the west, and many obscure tribes being able to thow plausibly that at least they are as liki-Iy to be Rajpoots or Afghans as to be Juts. The Juts are indeed enumerated among the arbitrary or conrt-ntional thirty-six royal races of the local bards of Rajpootana (Tod's Rnjattknn, i. 106.), and they
themselves claim affinity with the Bhuttees, and aspire to a lunar origin, as is done by the Raja of Putteeala As instances of the nar row and confused state of our know ledge regarding the people of India, it mny he mentioned that the links (or Virks\ one of the most distinguished tribes of Juts, is admitted among the Chalook Rajpoots by Tod (i. 100.), and that there arc Kukker and Kahur Juts, Kukker Kokurt and Kakur Afghans, besides Gukkers, not included in any of the three races. Further the family of Oomerkot in Sindh is stated by Tod ( Rajasthan, i. 92, 93. ) to be Pramar (or Powar), while the Emperor Humayoon's chronicler talks of the followers (i. e. brethren) of that chief as being Juts. (Memoirs of Humayoon, p. 15.) The editors of the Journal of the Geographical Society (xiv. 207, note) derive Jut from the Sanscrit Jyest'ha, old, ancient, and so make the term equivalent to aborigines; but this etymology per haps too hastily sets aside the suffi ciently established facts of Getae and Yuechi emigrations, and the circumustance of Ty moor's warfare with Jettchs in Central Asia. Some of the most eminent of the Jut subdivisions in the Punjab ;ire named S'mdhoo, Checnch, Vura'itch, Chuttheh, Sidhoo, Kurrecal, GonHul, &c. &c.

143. Province of MEGWAR

ROOPARAIL RIVER._—Has its-source from the Hills north of; the [Village .0f Seismee, in the Province of Megwar, and flowing through ahilly tractby the Village; ofIKara Palmdoo and the Town of Koraburjoins the_River Jaumbra, about smile East, of the Village of. Balow, making a serpentinecourse of 20 miles.


,"'INDEX 'MAP OF MAL WA ACCOMPANYIXG SIR‘JOHN MALCOLM’S REPORT ON THAT PROVINCE. Culcutta : PRINTED AT THE GOVERNMENT GAZETTE PRESS, NO. 1, MISSION ROW. Printed in  1824'.

142. Meghs in the Record of kutch-Bhooj

Meghs in the Record of Bhooj, Gujarat
REFERENCE FROM:
"MEMORIAL
FROM HIS HIGHNESS THE RAO OF KUTCH"
TO HIS GRACE THE DUKE 0F ARGYLL, K.T.,
SECRETARY OF STATE FOR INDIA IN COUNCIL. WITH APPENDICES.
BOMBAY, PRINTED AT THE EDUCATION SOCIETY’S PRESS, BYCULLA. 1869.
सन् 1809 में कच्छ रियासत अंग्रेजों के साथ हुई। जमींदारों के अधिकार आदि को लेकर उनमें समझौता हुआ। सन् 1869 के समझौते को लेकर कच्छ के राव ने एक मेमोरंडोम दिया। जिसमें उसने विभिन्न पक्षों के साथ अपने जुरिसडिक्टसन् आदि पर पक्ष रखा! यह मेमोरंडोम बाद में प्रकाशित हुआ। उससे ये सन्दर्भ लिए गए है।
  उसमें कुछ ऐसे वाद भी दिए जिसके निर्णय का अधिकार राव को था। अतः उसने विनती की कि यह अधिकार उससे नहीं छिना जाय। साक्षी के बतौर कई वाद दिए। जिसमें कुछ वादों cases में मेगवाल megwal और कुछ में मेघवाल meghwal शब्द प्रयुक्त हुए है। जो वर्तमान मेघ जाति से ही थे!
   इससे यह प्रमाणित होता है कि उस समय यह जाति मेगवाल या मेघवाल से ही जानी जाती थी! इसमें सबसे पुराना case सन् 1747 का है। साथ ही यह भी प्रमाणित होता है कि उनके पास भूमि का मालिकाना था, जिसे भायड़ और एजेंसी ने मिलकर ख़त्म किया!
पृष्ठ.11_पर-- from page 11-
   From the Nowluhha Account Books for Sumwut 1803, A.D.1747.--
        -Fine from Summa Pudum (a) of Kaira (6) convicted of adultery with a Megwal woman.... .. .. .. .. .. .. Korees 10
पृष्ठ-   14   से, from page-14 ---
   -From the Account Books of the Kotwal (Police Oficer) of Bhooj far Sumwut 1873, A.D.-1817. --
           - Fine from Megwal Naya (a) and Mya (a) of Kaira (b) for a similar ofence. ( i.e. convicted of abdiction of a woman) koree 50

पृष्ठ. 15, from page 15--
---From the Account Books of the Kotwal of Bhooj for Sumwut 1874,  A.D.1818.
         -Fine from Megwal Jusa (a) and others (a) of Nutherkooke (b)1 for misappropriation of a camel hide .. .. . . . .. .. .. Korees 30,
         -Fine from Megwal Gungo (a) of Wummotee (b) for adultery ........ Korees 23-2
         -Fine from Mochee Wula J eram (a) of Mothala (b) for assault on his wife. Korees 50
पृष्ठ. 65,  From page- 65--
     -SUMWUT 1916. FROM JULY 1859 T0 JUNE 1860 M).
    -Cases, Civil and Criminal, taken cognisa'nce of by the Durbar to which Zemindars, and Subjects living on Zemindars’ Estates, were parties. No. Plaintiff or Prosecutor. Defendant. Subject.
165. Megwal kumma(a) of Veeranee(b) Sa Bhimsee(a) of Bhorala(b).. sbject-land.
पृष्ठ. 66,  From page- 66-
194. Megwal Ooga(a) of lakria, megwal Devji of lakria, subject- household things.
पृष्ठ. 71,  From page- 71--
317- Rana Sooltanjee(b) of Gaidee(b) . Megwal Jussa(a) of Gaidee- Subject-  Pregnancy by illicit intercourse.
पृष्ठ. 92,  From page- 92-
  363. Megwal Veeria(a) of Jatawara(b) of Ramwao Wughela Sewajee (b) of Jatawara, Subject- Assault.
370- Megwal Mullo (a) of Chitror (b) Megwal Momaya and Wala(a) of Chitror (b).. Subject- Killing two oxen.
N.B.——(a) denotes subjects living in the villages of Zemindars; whom Major Shortt considers to be guarantee-holders ; (b) guarantee-holders, (c) Mool-Grassias living in their villages.
पृष्ठ 18, from page-18-
Sumwut 1792, A.D.1736 ,from account books--- . Meghwal Moola (a) ...... Kaira __________
पृष्ठ 20 from page-20-
Sumwut 1874, A.D. 1818, from  Kotwal or police officer's register.......Jesa (a) ........ Nuveenal
   And so on

141. गुजराँवाला और मेघ

यह माना जाता है कि भारत से विभिन्न लोगों ने आव्रजन कर के लिए इस जिले को आबाद किया है।  यहां कृषि जनजातियां बहुत हैं, उनमें मेंघ भी एक प्रमुख जाति है, जो राजपूत मूल का दावा करती है, ये अपने को अपने मूल परिवार की बड़ी  शाखा का हिस्सा मानते है ,जिसे लाहौर, सियालकोट और अमृतसर के आसपास के जिलों में स्थित बताते है। अर्थात वर्तमान पाकिस्तान अ भारत अधीन पंजाब और राजस्थान व गुजरात आदि जगहों को ये अपना मूल वतन बताते है। विरक, वेरयच, हजरा, बावरा, चीमा, जोया या जुहिया, भाटी और पंवार आदि कई मेंघ उप जातियां,( virak, Varaich, Hanjra, Bavra,  chima, joya or juhiya, bhatti and panwar and other Megh tribes.) अपनी उत्पति राजपूतों से मानती है। हालाँकि यह उनके दिमागों वशीभूत है, फिर भी उनका राजपूतों से किसी प्रकार का कोई रोटी-बेटी का संबंध नही होता है।
    अब जो अपनी उत्पति राजपूत मूल से बताते है, वह ठीक वैसी ही दर्शाते है, जैसी कि इन उप जाति नामों को धारण करने वाली राजपूत जातियां बताती है। इन उप जाति नामों को धारण करने वाले मुसलमान और हिन्दू दोनों है। हिन्दओं में मेघ और राजपूत, जाट आदि अनेक है।अतः उस को यहाँ उद्धृत कर रहा हूँ। किसी दूसरी पोस्ट में इसका विश्लेषण और विवेचन किया जायेगा।
  चीमा अपने को पृथ्वी राज चौहान का वंशज और चौहान मानते है। जो दिल्ली से यहाँ आना बताते है। कई लोग मुस्लमान बन गए। जो बचे वे हैसियत और औहदे से जाति निर्धारित होने पर विभिन्न जातियों में खप गए!
       वराइच/वेराइस/बिराईस आदि.... स्थान और बोलीगत भेद से अलग अलग उच्चारण मात्र है, मूलतः एक ही खांप या शाखा है। ये अपने को सूरजवंशी मानते है, जैसा कि इस नाम की राजपूत उपजाति अपने को मानती है। इनका मानना है कि उनका एक पूर्वज जो राजपूत था, गजनी से पंजाब में आया था, जो पहले पहल गुजरात जिले में बसा। उसके 9 पीढ़ी  बाद देवीदास ने चेनाब नदी पार की और एक गांव बसाया। उसके आस पास ही इनकी बढ़ोतरी होती गयी और गुजरावाला में फ़ैल गए। इन में से भी कई मुस्लमान बन गए और कई हिन्दू, जिसमें मेघ व राजपूत आदि है।
         विरक/विर्क/बिरक आदि नाम धारी....ये भी अपने को राजपूत मानते है और विरक नामधारी राजपूत से अपना निकास बताते है। उनका मनना है कि जम्मू के परघोवाल पहाड़ों से उदरसेन अमृतसर आया और किसी जमींदार की बेटी से शादी की और यहीं बस गया। जिसके तीन पुत्र थे- दृगर,विरक और वरन् । विरक की संतान ही विरक/बिरक कहलायी। ये भी मुस्लमान और हिन्दू दोनों में बँट गए। हिंदुओं में मेघ, जाट और राजपूत आदि में खप गए।
      भाटी या भाटिया अपनी निकास भटनेर से बताते है।
इस प्रकार से गुजराँवाला के मेघ भी अपनी उत्पति अन्य मेघों की तरह राजपूतों से बताते है.....

140. Meg : At the time of Alexander, from the records of Megesthenese and Arrien

कंनिघम महोदय ने यह स्पष्ट किया कि आज के मेग/ मेघ अलेक्सन्दर के समय उनकी भाषा में megallae नाम से वर्णित किये गए थे। प्राकृत/पालि में ग/घ के लिये ह अक्षर प्रयुक्त होता है व ग व घ भी ।
उस समय यह जाति कहाँ व किस स्थिति में थी! देखें:
The hill-tribes between the Indus and the Iomanes are the C e s i ; the Cetriboni, who live in the woods; then the Megallae, whose king is master of five hundred elephants and an army of horse and foot of unknown strength ; the C h r y s e i, the Parasangse, and the A s a n g se,|| where tigers abound, noted for their ferocity. The force under arms consists of 30,000 foot, 300 elephants, and 800 horse. These are shut in by the Indus, and are surrounded by a circle of mountains and deserts.....
केसी cesi,लोगों को काठी,  cetriboni को खत्रि, आदि के रूप में पहचाना गया है। यह कहा गया है कि मेघ राजा के पास 500 हाथी थे, सेना में घुड्सवॉर थे और बहुत से पैदल थे।... page 142
Reference
ANCIENT INDIA AS DESCRIBED BY MEGASTHENES AND ARRIAN ; BEING A TRANSLATION OF THE FRAGMENTS OF THE INDIKA OF MECASTHENES COLLECTED BY DR. SCHWANBECK, AND OF THE FIRST PART OF THE INDIKA OF ARRIAN, BY J. W. McCRINDLE, M.A-, **• PRINCIPAL OF THE GOVERNMENT COLLEGE, PATNA, MEMBER OP THE GENERAL COUNCIL OF THE; }TN IVETCSITT OP EDINBURGH, FELLOW OF THE UNIVERSITY OP CALCUTTA. WITH INTRODUCTION, NOTES, AND MAP OF ANCIENT INDIA. Reprinted (with, additions) from the "Indian Antiquary," 1870-77. <f a 1 1 a t tji : $ o m bag: THACKEK, SftNK & Co. THACKEK & Co. London  : TEUBNER & Co. 1877. Page 142

Thursday, December 17, 2015

139.Khemawati(ancient city of India) and Meghs

Khemawati (ancient city of India) and Meghs
But, while Kshemavati was the capital city of Raja Kshema, we have already seen, from the Buddhist records of Ceylon, that the name of his country, or kingdom, was " Mekhala." Now, I believe that I have been able to dis cover an existing remembrance of this ancient name, preserv ed in the names of two villages, situated only a short distance to the south of Khem-rdj-pur, and both of which are called " Mughdnwan." The Manora, or Manurama river , flows to the west and south of Khem-raj-pur. Four miles and a half to the south- south-east from Khem-raj-pur, and on the north bank of the Manora River, there is a village, the name of which is spelt " Mughanwan " in the maps; and, again, 4^ miles nearly due south (or the very least shade west of south) from Khem- rdj-pur and on the south bank of the Manora River, there is another village, the name of which is spelt " Mugh-gan- wan " in the maps. These two villages are only 2 miles apart, and they lie east and west from each other. The correct form of the name appears to be either " Meghanwa" or " Megh-gaunon" (for Megha-grama?). They would appear to be ancient sites, probably of coeval antiquity with Khem-raj-pur. Now, I believe that the names of these two villages are simply a local dialectic Hindi corruption of " Maghdgrdma," which would mean the habitation of a people called "Meghs-," and I believe that these "Meghs" were the people of "Mekhala\' and that consequently the "Mekhala" of the Buddhist chronicles of Ceylon was simply a Pali corruption of the Sanskrit Megh-laya, which would mean the abode of Meghs. From the whole of the foregoing exposition, I think it will appear pretty certain that I have discovered both "Kshema vati" and "Mekhala."
Page 184
Reference
REPORT OF TOURS IN THE CENTRAL DOAB AND GORAKHPUR IN AND 1875-76.

BY CARLLEYLE,
FIRST ASSISTANT,
ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY, UNDER THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF Major-General A. CUNNINGHAM, C. S. I., C. I. E., DIRECTOR-GENERAL OF THE ARCH^OLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA.
VOLUME XII.
CALCUTTA : OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF GOVERNMENT. PRINTING.
Publication:  1879

20.— KH EM RAJ PUR, OR KSHEMAVATI. In the Buddhist books of Ceylon it is stated that Krakuchanda Buddha had been the "Purohit," or family priest, of "Raja Kshema " of " Mekhala." But in the Bud dhist chronicles, "Sapia Buddha Stotra," quoted by Remu- sat in "Fo-kwe-ki," and referred to by General Cunningham in his "Ancient Geography of India," the name of the city is called "Kshemavati," or " Khemavati." I had the good fortune to find the actual site of this ancient city, the capital of Raja Kshema. On a reference to quarter sheet No. 87 of the Indian Atlas, it will be seen that in the northern part of Pargana Amorha (District of Basti), at longitude 82 degrees 23 minutes, by latitude 26 degrees 56 minutes, 1 1 miles to the north-east from the nearest part of the Ghagra River at Ajudhia (or from the Ramghat or Belwa Bazar opposite), and 14 miles to the west-north-west from Bhuila Tdl, there is a village marked down with the name of " Khem- rdj-poor" near the southern end of a lake shaped like the letter "T." This village of "Khem-rdj-pur" is 8 miles dis













Sunday, December 13, 2015

138. Megh: kabirpanthi of chhatisgarh

Unfolding Pages from history: Megh and kabirpanth of chhatisgarh
130. Religion prevalence of dissent in chuteesgurh-
        Chuteesgurh to orthodox Hindoos is not only hateful as the land of the Dasyas and witches, but as the head quarters of religions dissent, as it is to its secluded  wilds that all those who opposed to the prevailing tenets fled to escape from their persecutors, and consequently Hindooism sits lightly on most of the people, while large numbers are avowed dissenters belonging to the Kubeerpuntee and Satnamee sects.  
   131. The orogion of Kubeer puntee and Satnamee sects-
            These two sects are said to have arisen about the same time and both evidently, like the older Buddhism, owe Origin of  their origin to a reaction against Brahminical  tyranny. Their respective founders, Kubeer and Raidass, are said to have both been disciples of Ramanund; and Kubeer is said by his followers to have first commenced preaching in Rewa, where their first Gooroo, Dhurum Dass, was installed in Sumbut 1,520, 1,4 63 AD. It is said that during the life time of Kubeer, but most probably after his death, Dhurnum Dass was driven to take refuge under the Ruttunpore Princes, and since then his descendants have always lived in Chuteesgurh. About Raidass, tradition has less to tell, as his mission was principally to the Chumars, and never Seems to have much influenced the higher classes, at all events in late Years. Now he is almost forgotten, his fame being eclipsed by Ghasee Dass the last Sutnamee apostle.
132. Point of similarity between the two sects-
        The two sects agree in their rejection of images, their veneration for life, their objection to strong drink and tobacco, and the sign of initiation in both is a necklace of wooden beads : but while the Sutnamees worship one God under the name of Sut nam. “ the true name," and have never distinctly deified either Raidass or Ghasee Dass, though there are signs that the apotheosis of the latter is not far off, the Kubeerpuntees distinctly regard Kubeer as an incarnation of the Deity, though they do not profess to address their prayers to him.
133. Points of difference between the two sects-
     The chief difference between the sects arises from the more aristocratic proclivities of the Kubeerpuntees,  and may probably be traced to the different social position occupied by their respective founders, Kubeer being a weaver by caste, while Rai Dass was a Chumar. Hence, the Kubeerpuntees, making their converts from a higher class than the Sutnamees, received many who were unwilling to give up their caste distinctions(these being preserved among the former sect), while the more democratic Sutnamees ignore all caste differences among the members of the sect. Similarly, while the Kubeer puntees pay Brahmins a. certain degree of reverence, some having their marriages performed by them, though the more orthodox employ a Kussondee Bunnia, the Sutnamees abhor all Brahmins, hatred of the race being almost an article of their creed. The sects difi'er also in that the Kubeerpuntees fast once a month, while the Sutnamees do not. Both sects bury their dead.
  134. Classes holding Kubeerpantee doctrines, and internal administration of the sect-
      The Kubeerpuntees include a large number of Bunnias, Kayeths, Telees and Koormees, as well as other castes. while the Gandas man belong to the  sect. Their principal Gooroo lives at Kuwardha in Belaspore, but he only exercises jurisdiction over the Kubeerpuntees in the north of the District, the office in the south having been many years ago delegated to a younger branch of the family which is settled at Dhumturry, and which is now represented by Kumod Dass. The Dhumturry Gooron is said to have all the poster of the chief Gooroo at Kowurdha, while he is not subject to the disagreeable necessity of dying 25 years after he has assumed office as the Kowurdha Gooroo must, if he has a proper respect for tradition, do. But at the best, either Gooroo has very little to do with his disciples, their intercourse being restricted to yearly visits made by the Gooroo to his followers in the cold Weather, while he is only sought by them when they want- their children to be invested with the sacred necklace. Their only distinctive festival in Raepore is that held at Koora. Bungolee, in the Simgah Tehseele, on the last day of “ Magh" each year, in honor of Seoree Narain, a Kubeerpuntee Mohunt of great sanctity, who is buried there. The concourse of pilgrims forms the nucleus  of the annual fair, which is one of the largest in the District.
  135. Internal Administration of Sutnamees sect-
       The Sutnamees on the other hand, at least all who have not been led away by the charms of tobacco, and become choongeeas or tobacco smokers (a name  which to an orthodox Sutnamce implies a state of unpardonable vice), visit their Gooroo regularly twice every year at Bhundar, in the Raepore Tehseelee, where the temple of the Sect, an empty building without an image. is situated. These visits take place in “ Magh" and “ Bhadon,” and each votary brings his offering. The present Gooroo is the grandson of Ghaseedass, but as he is a minor, his uncle Agur Dass acts for him.
136. Morality of Kubeerpuntee is superior to that of Sutnamees-
    In morality, if common report is to be trusted, the Kubeerpuntees are very much superior to the Sutnamees, though it must be remembered in justice to the latter, that their antagonism to the Hindoos exposes them to calumny. After a great deal of close inquiry, I must, however, say I think there is good ground for imputing some of the worst of Observances of' the Maharaja sect to some at least of the Sutnamees.
137.  Dissenters from Sutnamee and Kubeerpuntee sects-
        Both sects have suffered from the “dissidence of dissent.” _ The Choongcea 0r Sutnamee dissenters have  been already mentioned  and Kubeerpuntee have divided into two bodies, one acknowledging and the other disallowing, the Kowurdha Gooroo as a genuine “ Avatar” of Kubeer. The dissenters however are not numerous. Their Gooroo lives in Nandea in the Khoojee Zemindaree.
138. Thakoor Deo- The real object of worship of all the chuteesgurh-
        But these sectarian differences, though going deeper in the ease of the Sutnamees, have for the most part  little influence on the people,  which is concentrated  in their devotion to Thakoor Deo. Without a sacnfice to him no agricultural operations can be performed. The seed sown and the first shoots of the young rice must be presented at his shrine, and he must be invoked to bless the field before the crop is cut, while it would be the height of reckless impiety- to tread out or winoow the grain on a threshing floor where some offering had not been made to the great Earth god. Thakoor Deo’s power does not extend only over the crops, but over the whole surface of the Earth, and hence his protection is efficacious against Wild beasts, and an offering made in his honour at the commencement of the year infallibly prevents a tiger from taking up his abode within the precincts of a village. If he should do so in Spite of the offering, it is, as an old Malgoozar told me, a proof that the sacrifice was not costly enough and that it must be repeated, a doctrine which at all events benefits the “ Bygas."   Pages 47 to 49
Reference-
REPORTS ON THE LAND REVENUE SETTLEMENT OF THE RAEPORE DISTRICT, CHUTEESGURH DIVISION. CENTRAL PROVINCE, 1869, 
EFFECTED BY :J. F. K. HEWITT, ESQ, B. c. s.
NAGPORE,
PRINTED FOR THE CHIEF COMMISSIONER’S OFFICE, 'C. P. AT THE ALBERT PRINTING PRESS. 1869

Saturday, December 5, 2015

137. Meg : At the time of Alexander, from the records of Megesthenese and Arrien


कंनिघम महोदय ने यह स्पष्ट किया कि आज के मेग/ मेघ अलेक्सन्दर के समय उनकी भाषा में megallae नाम से वर्णित किये गए थे। प्राकृत/पालि में ग/घ के लिये ह अक्षर प्रयुक्त होता है व ग व घ भी ।
उस समय यह जाति कहाँ व किस स्थिति में थी! देखें:

The hill-tribes between the Indus and the Iomanes are the C e s i ; the Cetriboni, who live in the woods; then the Megallae, whose king is master of five hundred elephants and an army of horse and foot of unknown strength ; the C h r y s e i, the Parasangse, and the A s a n g se,|| where tigers abound, noted for their ferocity. The force under arms consists of 30,000 foot, 300 elephants, and 800 horse. These are shut in by the Indus, and are surrounded by a circle of mountains and deserts.....

केसी cesi,लोगों को काठी,  cetriboni को खत्रि, आदि के रूप में पहचाना गया है। यह कहा गया है कि मेघ राजा के पास 500 हाथी थे, सेना में घुड्सवॉर थे और बहुत से पैदल थे।... page 142

Reference
ANCIENT INDIA AS DESCRIBED BY MEGASTHENES AND ARRIAN ; BEING A TRANSLATION OF THE FRAGMENTS OF THE INDIKA OF MECASTHENES COLLECTED BY DR. SCHWANBECK, AND OF THE FIRST PART OF THE INDIKA OF ARRIAN, BY J. W. McCRINDLE, M.A-, **• PRINCIPAL OF THE GOVERNMENT COLLEGE, PATNA, MEMBER OP THE GENERAL COUNCIL OF THE; }TN IVETCSITT OP EDINBURGH, FELLOW OF THE UNIVERSITY OP CALCUTTA. WITH INTRODUCTION, NOTES, AND MAP OF ANCIENT INDIA. Reprinted (with, additions) from the "Indian Antiquary," 1870-77. <f a 1 1 a t tji : $ o m bag: THACKEK, SftNK & Co. THACKEK & Co. London  : TEUBNER & Co. 1877. Page 142