Thursday, January 15, 2015

113. विश्व इतिहास और मेघ - अलेक्ज़ांडर कन्निंघम






112. Turanian ethnocity

Alexandar Cunningham identified Megh of Punjab from Turanian ethnocity. Archaeology survey report volume. 1


111. Megh : sound and changes in different vernaculars

विभिन्न भाषाओँ में अक्षर और शब्द कैसे बदल दिए जाते है। इस हेतु निम्न विवरण जो क का ख में और ग का घ में और क या ग का घ या ह आदि में कैसे परिवर्तन होता है। उस पर जानकारी विस्तृत रूप से है । कुछ बीच के वाक्यांश उन लोगों के लिए जो शब्दों को लेकर उहा-पोह करते है-
"Not at all unlike is the history which Ascoli traces of the guttural media (g) and of th aspirate (gh) : the various changes of which in the Aryan languages he explains with the help of the hypothesis just referred to. We may, however, pass over them in silence in this brief treatise and proceed at once to critical considerations touching the doctrine of Ascoli which we have set forth." Page- 8-9.

"------He hopes to be able to demonstrate that our linguistic stock, both in its entire pro- ethnic period, and partly also in the several languages, possessed two surd guttural sounds, completely distinct from one another (like the Semitic), of which two sounds then one is represented in Indo-Iranian by k and by c,1 the other by g, and between these almost no contact took place, while partly in Greek and Italic, almost completely in German, they became fused into one sound. For the sake of brevity he denotes these two sounds by the symbols k and kc and he puts before us their changes in the various families of the Aryan dialects. He throws into relief, in the Indo- Iranian, the affinity existing between k and c and the differ ence between k and c, considering c as a successor of k and observing that there is not, on the other hand, an assured instance of c( derived from k and used in place of it, and that herein, with very rare exceptions, Slavo-Lithuanian also agrees with Indo-Iranian. The various ways in which the two sections of the Keltic languages represent the Eroto- Aryan k, which in Old Irish is regularly reflected by c (ch), while in Welsh it is refracted sometimes into c, sometimes into^i, lead Fick to' the opinion that in the primitive Keltic there existed two ^-sounds, which in Irish became fused into a single sound (c), in Welsh maintained themselves distinct and became c and p. Hence the two equations : 1st. O. Ir. c= Welsh ^ = Indo-Iran. k and c; 2nd. O. Ir. c = Welsh e=Indo-Ir an. £=Lith. s?=Sl. s. The first sound, which, becoming c in Irish and p in Welsh, must have had a power intermediate and wavering between c and p, may be expressed, according to Fick, by kv : the power of the second can only have been k. In Greek and in Italic the primitive k appears represented by kv (and by the sounds which this group originates) and also by k (cor- responding to an older kv) : of the Proto-Aryan ke (Indo- Iran. £=Lith. «2=Church-Sl. *=Ir. c=Welsh c) the suc cessor is k. In Teutonic the primordial difference between the two guttural surd sounds of the fundamental Aryan is 12 for the most part obscured by the ' lautverschiebung : ' 1 the one and the other we find represented by h, while this aspi rate does not discover to us its origin from k or from kc . Only in a few instances does initial or final hv show us that, in this family also of Aryan dialects, the k corresponding to the primitive k undergoes the change to kv. In Slavonic the Proto-Aryan k appears well marked only in the group sk. Fick's hypothesis of the double primitive k was received with favour by several philologists, among whom we would first mention G. Curtius, who, to remove all doubt with respect to the genealogical tree of the Aryan languages, considers himself bound " with Fick to suppose for the Indo- Germanic period a double k, or, to be brief, a. guttural k and a palatal k."1 Ha vet, too,3 believes in the existence of the two Proto-Aryan guttural surds, which he represents by the symbols £, and k2 and to which he attri butes in the primitive and fundamental Aryan the same sound which they had in Latin, pronouncing ft, (=ks of Ascoli, k of Fick) as kw, k, (=k' of Ascoli, kc of Fick) as k. But he sees in the development of a parasite after the explosive the effect, not the cause, of the original change of the consonant in question. The change of k into k' is, in his opinion, prior to all formation of a parasitic sound. He then proceeds to show how, by means of successive cor ruptions, the two Proto-Aryan ^-sounds became changed in 13 such a way that it was possible for them to be confounded. The change of the primitive explosive guttural surd into a sibilant, a change which we see in several Indo-Iranic words and in the Slavo-Lithuanian words corresponding to them (as we have just now seen), took place, if we believe Havet, separately in each of the two sections of the languages mentioned, just as, e.g., the c (Lat. k) of centum was sibilised in the c of the French word cent quite independently of the of the Old Indian and Zend qata-1 . Hence he proceeds to demonstrate the existence of the double k in the Proto- Aryan period by the following equations : 1st. £2=Graeco- Italo- Keltic k, Teutonic h (k) = Indo-Iranian s (corresponding to our c), SI. *, Lith. a (k) ; in all these languages in the most ancient form the sound was k : hence it was k before the separation. 2nd. /fc^Gaelic k, Kymric j9=Pan-Keltic kw; /c, = Lat. kw, Osco- Urnbrian p = Pan-Italic kw; k^=ir, Ion. «=Pan-Hellenic kw. hence /fc^Graeco-Italo-Keltic kw — /ck = Teutonic hv (kw),f(p,kw),h (k) = Proto-Teutonic kw; /&, = Lithu-Slav. k, sometimes kw, p (Jcw) : hence Teutono-Lithu-Slavonic kw — hence ^,=European kw — Indo-Iranic k,t' (=k' of the more usual transcription), some times p (kw), kw: thence ki = Indo-Iranian primitive kw. Now, if ki is=kw of Indo-Iranian and of the fundamental European, there results this last equation : ^ = Proto-Aryan kw. The limits prescribed for our treatise do not allow us to follow Havet in the replies which he makes to several objections, and in the exposition of the advantages which he believes maybe derived from his theory. Jolly himself also, in the monograph quoted above, admits in Proto- 14 Aryan two ^-sounds quite distinct from each other, the true physiological value of which we can with difficulty deter* mine, because they have reached us only in one series of representatives. He, therefore, willingly accepts Havet's symbols : kl} ki. The fact, observes J olly, that the written language had only one letter for the guttural tenuis, con tributed unquestionably to confuse two sounds originally distinct. Nevertheless it should be remarked that the written language, whence the written letters used by the Aryan peoples took their origin, offered them two characters for the primitive sound k, by which they might well have indicated with accuracy its two different values. Fick's hypothesis, well received and defended by the philologists mentioned, found a formidable opponent in that learned and acute inquirer Johann Schmidt, who subjected it to a severe examination, in his review of Fick's work on the ancient linguistic unity of the Indo-Germans of Europe.1 Against Fick's theory of the primitive double k J. Schmidt observes, in the first place, that, by the confes sion of Fick himself, these two supposed Proto- Aryan gut tural sounds coalesced in Teutonic almost always into h ; frequently into k on Greek and Latin ground ; in Irish they are not distinguished at all, nor are they always clearly discernible in Kymric. He goes on to quote examples of Indo-Iran. £ = SI. s, Lith. sz reflected by Lat. qv, and of descendants of kv, corresponding to Sanscr. cp against the as sertions of Fick. Further "the South-European languages and the German not only have often the simple k where Fick's rule requires kv, but also kv when the rule forbids it, i.e. the distinction between the two sounds in these lan- 15 guages is not generally complete." From the Lectures of As- coli he learns that thereisnot alwaysawell marked difference between the two ^-sounds even in Indo-Iranian and in Slavo-Lithuanian. Therefore the development of k into kj (Sanscr. f, SI. s, Lith. sz) was still incomplete when a rela tion of continuity existed between Indo-Iranian and Lithu- Slavonic : much less complete must it evidently have been during the far more ancient period of the primitive Aryan unity. Moreover, observes our critic, every Proto- Aryan tenuis has side by side with it a media with an aspirate : thus we have t, d, dh — p, b, bh. Hence if we were bound to ad mit a primitive double k, we should have to expect also a Proto- Aryan double g and double gh, especially as the Indo- Iranic and the Slavo-Lithuanian dialects have sounds which we might look upon as descendants of the six sounds above named, i. e. Sanscr. k, g, gh, h, and p, g', h ; Old Bulgarian k, g, and sz ; Lith. k, g, and sz, z. Now Fick is far from wishing to demonstrate in the primitive and fundamental Aryan the existence of a double media and a double aspirate corresponding to the supposed double tenuis k. Lastly, if the ke of Fick ( = Indo-Iran. f, SI. «,Lith. sz) corresponded to the simple k (not kv) of the other European languages, the logi cal result would be that the Indo-Iranic and Lithu-Slavonic mediae and aspirates of this tenuis ought to be represented in the other European languages by g, gh, not changed into gv,ghv : and this cannot be positively affirmed. Bezzenberger, in his critical remarks on the second part, recently published, of J. Schmidt's work, Zur geschichte des indogermanischen vokalismus,1 has given expression to certain opinions concerning the present argument, which we do not think it right to pass by in silence. " In the fundamental Lithu-Slavonic language," he writes, " there ie was not from the very beginning a sibilant as a substitute for the primitive kc, or a corruption of it, such as the Sanscr. f is, or presupposes, but it was reflected by a simple k. This results — 1st from its being represented by a simple k in the other European languages, 2ndly from the fact that this k has been preserved in some cases." 1 " If in some cases/' he observes, " the development of the sibilant from /cc is a phe nomenon of less ancient origin, it may be such in all the cases/' and accidental. Therefore the agreement of the Sanscr. and Old Bactr. f with the Slav. * and with the Lith. sz is quite unimportant.5 He then proceeds to examine some etymological views held by J. Schmidt in opposition to Fick, which seem to him of doubtful value. He thinks it very doubtful also that every tenuis must have side by side with it a media and an aspirate, as Schmidt supposes, and he quotes, by way of example, the labial media which is so rare, and has an existence so scantily demonstrated in the
fundamental Aryan.3 It is clear from the foregoing exposition that, in spite of the efforts of Ascoli, of Fick, and of some other philolo gists, the history of the Proto-Aryan k has not yet been explained in such a way as to dispel all obscurity. For the final solution of the problem we still need fresh studies on the descendants of the sound in question. And the results of the fresh researches will be far more useful to philology than many people think, in that the problem, which we have dis cussed up to this point, is intimately connected, as will be 17 seen later, with that of the special affinities which are generally thought to exist between the various families of the Aryan linguistic stock.4" pages 10 to -16 and onwards

Reference:
"ARYAN PHILOLOGY"
By DOMENICO PEZZI,
TRANSLATED BY E. S. ROBERTS, M.A.,
LONDON : TRUBNER AND CO., LUDGATE HILL. 1879.


Tuesday, January 13, 2015

110. Tabkat-i-Nasiri कोच और मेघ
















तबकात इ नासिरी के सन्दर्भ में तीन जातियों का उल्लेख एक पोस्ट में किया था। उनमे थारु, कोच और मेघ बताई गई थी। आर जी लथम ने एथ्नोलोजी ऑफ़ ब्रिटिश डेपेंदेंसी में एक और खुलासा किया कि कोच लोग अपने को कोच कहते है पर दूसरे लोग उन्हें मेघ कहते है। जो भी हो, एक बात ध्यान देने योग्य यह उभरती है कि कोच जाति और मेघ जाति मे निश्चित रूप से प्राचीन काल में सम्बन्ध रहा है और उनका मूल एक ही रहा होगा। तभी ऐसी बातें की जाती रही होगी। आज मेघ और कोच जाति अलग अलग है। दोनों ही जातियों की स्थिति निम्न ही है। उनके रीति रिवाज और आचार व्यवहार का एतिहासिक सन्दर्भ में अन्वेषण करके उनकी एक जातीय सम्बन्धता को जाना जा सकता है। जहाँ मेघ नहीं है, वहां कोच जाति बहुतायत से है। कुछ जगहों पर दोनों है व अलग है। यह सब हिंदूवादी ब्राह्मणी कारण से ही हुआ लगता है।



Tararam Gautam यह किसी वलविर नामक मेघ की पुत्री हिल्की/सिल्की या य्हहिल का है, जो हुमायूँ और अकबर के मंत्री बैरम/बेहराम खान के पुत्र को ब्याही गयी। वलविर भी बाद में मुस्लमान बन गया। हुमायु की एक बार इसने जान बचायी थी। नदी में डूबने से बचाया था। शेष HT में पोस्ट किया जायेगा।

Col Tilak Raj- Yeh baat aur khoz ki maang karti hai.

Tararam Gautam- And story goes so on------

Bharat Bhushan- Taken to HT.

Rattan Gottra- Economic history of India by Dr. Gadgil also reveals to us such miserable plight of our people particularly during major famines. Dr. BR Ambedkar also confirms such conditions.


See also
'The Muslim Heritage of Bengal: The Lives, Thoughts and Achievements of Great ...'

By Muhammad Mojlum Khan



Tararam Gautam
The information that Ali Mech(Meg), who was converted to Islam, was Bakhtyar’s principle guide in the so-called Tibbet-expedition and that after the disastrous retreat and recrossing of the mighty river, most likely the Brahmaputra. The Mech(Megh) tribes had assisted Bakhtyar for a safe return to Devikot are indeed pregnant with significance. It highlights on the one hand that the Mech(Megh) tribe was an important political and social element in the reign at the time as the other tribe namely the Koch were. On the other hand, the nvading army was not considered by the Mech(Megh) as prejudicial to their political and social interest. That many of them had accepted Islam without being compelled to do so suggest that (1) conversion was not always forcefully done; and that (2) conversion was not induced by Hindu caste opprobrium. Minhaj Uddin us Siraj appeared to be particularly interested in describing military strategies. If one goes along the line of narration, given by Minhaj Uddin us Siraj, it appears that Bakhtyar Khalji had used both military powers and strategic deception to conquer Nadia. The strongest point in his attack was the element of surprise which he fruitfully employed to outwit Lakshman Sen, the ruler of Bengal. It was perhaps with the same strategy of speed and surprise that he intended to conduct his so-called Tibettian expedition. He might have overlooked in his over enthusiasm the difficulties of the terrain. Though the Bakhtyar Khalji’s objective was to conquer Tibet and on that score Minhaj Uddin us Siraj might have faithfully recorded it but what is doubtful is identification of the place where Bakhtyar Khalji could have gone.

Reference:
International Journal for Historical Studies, 5(1) October 2013
ANIL KUMAR SARKAR

History of Bengal as Reflected in the Tabaqat-i-Nasiri of Minhaj Uddin us Siraj


109. Bakhtyar Khalji and Mech (Megh)

The information that Ali Mech(Meg), who was converted to Islam, was Bakhtyar’s principle guide in the so-called Tibbet-expedition and that after the disastrous retreat and recrossing of the mighty river, most likely the Brahmaputra. The Mech(Megh) tribes had assisted Bakhtyar for a safe return to Devikot are indeed pregnant with significance. It highlights on the one hand that the Mech(Megh) tribe was an important political and social element in the reign at the time as the other tribe namely the Koch were. On the other hand, the nvading army was not considered by the Mech(Megh) as prejudicial to their political and social interest. That many of them had accepted Islam without being compelled to do so suggest that (1) conversion was not always forcefully done; and that (2) conversion was not induced by Hindu caste opprobrium. Minhaj Uddin us Siraj appeared to be particularly interested in describing military strategies. If one goes along the line of narration, given by Minhaj Uddin us Siraj, it appears that Bakhtyar Khalji had used both military powers and strategic deception to conquer Nadia. The strongest point in his attack was the element of surprise which he fruitfully employed to outwit Lakshman Sen, the ruler of Bengal. It was perhaps with the same strategy of speed and surprise that he intended to conduct his so-called Tibettian expedition. He might have overlooked in his over enthusiasm the difficulties of the terrain. Though the Bakhtyar Khalji’s objective was to conquer Tibet and on that score Minhaj Uddin us Siraj might have faithfully recorded it but what is doubtful is identification of the place where Bakhtyar Khalji could have gone.


Reference:
International Journal for Historical Studies, 5(1) October 2013
ANIL KUMAR SARKAR

History of Bengal as Reflected in the Tabaqat-i-Nasiri of Minhaj Uddin us Siraj

Thursday, January 8, 2015

108. Myth of Megh Rikh and Meghvansh - मेघ रिख का मिथ और मेघवंश

Tararam Gautam with Bharat Bhushan
15 hrs


विष्णु पुराण और मेघ वंश- मेघवंश इतिहास और संस्कृति भाग एक में कौशल के मेघवंश पर कुछ विस्तार से लिखा गया था। और मेघ राजाओं की वन्शावलि भी दी गयी थी। जो लोग संस्कृत और हिंदी की जानकारी नहीं रखते है, परन्तु अंग्रेजी में रूचि रखते है। उनसे मेरा निवेदन है कि जो भाग एक में लिखा है। उसको विष्णु पुराण के अंग्रेजी अनुवाद से भी परख ले। जब यह स्थापित किया गया कि मेघवंश वस्त्र बुनने के कार्य से अलग जाति या समूह नहीं बना बल्कि अपनी अलग मान्यताओं से बना, जिसमें उनके जातीय समूह को एक वंश का अभिधान मिला तो ऐसा स्थापित करने के कई आधार रहे है फिर भी कुछ लोग उस पर उहाँ पोह कर रहे है। मेरी नजर में यह उनका बालपन ही है। जो न तो खुद ज्ञान संपन्न होना चाहते है और न ही दूसरों को होने देना चाहते है। खैर जो भी हो, यहाँ पर एच.एच. विल्सन द्वारा विष्णु पुराण के अंग्रेजी में किये गए अनुवाद से कुछ उक्तियाँ आपके ध्यानाकर्षण हेतु रख रहा हूँ। आप इस पर विचार करे। विल्सन महोदय ने इस अनुवाद के साथ कई पुराणों के सन्दर्भ भी दिए है और मेघवंश की उपस्थिति को प्रमाणिकता से स्थापित किया है। अनुवादित स्रोत का सन्दर्भ निम्न है-
"द विष्णु पुराण- ए सिस्टम ऑफ़ हिन्दू माइथोलॉजी एंड ट्रेडिशन ( ट्रांसलेटेड फ्रॉम द ओरिजिनल संस्कृत एंड इलस्ट्रेटेड बाई नोट्स डेरावीड चिफ़लि फ्रॉम अदर पुरान्स)"
by H. H. Wilson
Volume. 4
London, Trinket & co.
Publication: 1868


विल्सन के अनुवाद में पेज संख्या 216 में लिखा गया वाक्यांश निम्न है-
"The three copies of the Vayu read Komala, and call the kings the Meghas, “more strong than sapient"
"कोमलाम तु राजानो भविस्यन्ति महाबला:
मेघा इति समाख्यता बुद्धिमंतो न वै च तु ।।"
" The Bhagavata agrees with our text.“ The vayu says, of the Naishadhas, or kings of Nishadha, that they were, all, of the race of Nala: नलवंशप्रसुता | The Bhagavata adds two other races, seven Andhras (oide supra, p. 199, note 4), and kings of Vaidi'lra; with the remark, that these were, all, contemporaries; being, as the commentator observes, petty or provincial rulers,— खंडमंडलेषु भूपा|
इसी पेज के फुट नोट में लिखा-
§ From the correction made in note 1], below, it comes out that the Meghas were ‘both strong and sapient.’ I]
The proper and more ancient form is Kosala,—with the dental sibilant; and, as “(and are frequently interchanged by careless scribes, there is no doubt that कोसलायम is the right word here. The Brahmananda puran hasकुशला yielding koshala
The correct reading, unquestionably, is that which I find, नवैव I The kings of Kosala are, thus, said to be nine in number..
और भी जगहों पर विवरण है, उसे देखिये। मेघों को कपड़े बुनने वाली कौम बताने के पीछे कोई प्रमाण नहीं है। मैंने cotton और वस्त्र उद्योगों पर जितनी प्राचीन सामग्री टटोली है। उसमे इसको कहीं पर भी नहीं बताया गया है। यह उनके पराभव के बाद की जीविका का साधन भर रहा है। मेघ शब्द वस्त्र बुनाई से नहीं बना। फिर भी कुछ लोग उस तरफ ज्यादा माथा पच्ची कर रहे है। उन्हें क्या कहा जाय?
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Rattan Gottra People who do not understand are mentally conditioned otherwise.
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Tararam Gautam जितना प्रमाण इस वंश के राज वंश से उत्पन्न होने से है उसका रति भर भी राजपूतों के राजवंश से उत्पन्न होने से नहीं है। फिर भी राजपूत आदि अपने को राज वंशीय मानते है और एक ओर मेघ लोग है जो स्थापित, पुष्ट और प्रमाणित राज वंश होने के बाद भी वस्त्र बुनने और रिखी मिथक से छुटकारा नहीं पाना चाहते। दुनिया की किसी भी प्राचीन से प्राचीन अभिलेख या पुस्तक में मेघों के समूह को इससे जोड़ा हुआ नहीं बताया गया। यह सिर्फ ब्राह्मण वादी व्यवस्था में स्थान प्राप्ति का प्रयत्न भर है, जो औधे मुंह गिर चूका है। हिन्दू ग्रंथों में मेघों को वाह्लिक/ बाह्य/ अछेप न जाने क्या क्या कहा गया है। विष्णु पूरण में उन्हें आंध्र भृत्यों के समकक्ष रखा गया है। कोसल मेवुनाका उत्थान शातकर्णी के समय हुआ। उस समय नागार्जुन का प्रभाव चारों ओर था। इसमे कोई संदेह नहीं कि मेघ लोग जो अपने को मेघ महाधर्म का अनुयायी कहते है, वह उसी सी निकली शाखा हो सकती है। ये बाते उनके आचार विचार और धार्मिक मान्यताओं से भी पुष्ट होती है।
आप दूसरा साहित्य नहीं देखेंगे और कूप मंडूक की तरह हिन्दू शास्त्रों के इर्द गिर्द ही घूमेंगे तो आप अपने बारे में सही अन्वेषण भी नहीं कर पाएंगे। एस मेरा मानना है।
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Tararam Gautam दुनिया में कई बड़े बड़े वंश पतन और पराभव को प्राप्त हुए। यह कोई मेघों के साथ होने वाली अनोखी घटना नहीं है। पर अन्य कौमो ने अपना रास्ता बना लिया और जो इज्जत और गौरव के आयाम थे; उन पर अधिकार कर लिया। मेघ पराभव के बाद उसे एक एक कर छोड़ते गए। अगर कोई कौम सहस्रों वर्षो तक भी उठने का साहस नहीं बटोर पाती है तो उससे ज्यादा मरी हुई कौम किसी को भी नहीं कहा जा सकता है।
आज का समय मेघों के उत्थान का बनाना चाहिए परन्तु उनकी नींद नहीं खुलती है क्योंकि हिन्दू वादी मिथकीय लोरिया उन्हें मीठा मीठा एहसास दे देती है तो फिर वे उठकर सो जाते है। यही एक और बड़ी विडम्बना है।
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Rattan Gottra They need the true study of PRE-ARYAN CULTURE.
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Tararam Gautam Not only pre Aryan but also non- vedic and non brahmanical literature must attract their attention.
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Tararam Gautam Bharat Bhushan pl add in HT with comments.
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Tararam Gautam इसी पुराण में मेकल प्रदेश के राजाओं का भी जिक्र है। यह नर्बदा के पास का क्षेत्र है। मेकल शब्द वहां की पहाड़ी का है, जो वहां निवास करने वाले मेग लोगो के कारण पड़ा। ऐसा मत अलेक्षन्दर कन्निन्ग्हम महोदय आदि ने रखा था। मेकल के राजाओं को उन्होंने मेघ वंश से ही जोड़ा था। जिनसे बाद में गुजरात के कुछ राजपूत वंशों का उत्थान हुआ। यह सब अनुसंधानीय और विचारणीय है।
इसी सन्दर्भ का पेज 215 देखा जा सकता है।
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Bharat Bhushan मेदियन साम्राज्य के तार कहाँ कहाँ जुडे हैं इसे भी देखने की आवश्यकता होगी. उस साम्राज्य का बिखराव भी कई दिशाओं मेँ हुआ होगा. वस्त्र बनाने का कार्य केवल मेघों ने ही किया होगा इसे अक्ल नहीं मानती. अधिक संभावना इस बात की है कि उनके किसी छोटे समूह ने यह कार्य किया हो, सीखा हो.पूरा का पूरा वंश एक ही व्यवसाय में रहा हो इसकी संभावना शून्य ही है.
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Bharat Bhushan आप सही कह रहे हैं कि सवालों के घेरे में आकर मेघ रिख का मिथ जवाब नहीं दे पाता. Tararam Gautam ji.
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Bharat Bhushan इसे ht मेँ ले जाऊंगा.

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