Saturday, November 8, 2014

88. मालवा और राजपुताना में राजपूतों के उत्थान से पूर्व मल्ल/मेघ आधिपत्य

(मालवा और राजपुताना में राजपूतों के उत्थान से पूर्व यहाँ मल्लों/मेघों का आधिपत्य था। इस बात को इंगित करता हुआ विवरण देखे, पूर्वी राजस्थान की आर्कियोलॉजिकल सर्वे ऑफ़ इंडिया की रिपोर्ट वॉल्यूम -6.
यह टूर रिपोर्ट A. C. L. Carleyle ने कन्निन्घम महोदय के सुपरविजन में बनायीं व कलकत्ता से 1878 में प्रकाशित हुए। राजपूताने के किलों के पीछे जुड़े मेर शब्द पर विमर्श करते हुए वह लिखते है)-
"I also think it is very probable that the name of the Meds, or Mers, or Mairs, the ancient inhabitants of Ajmer, the south of Marwar, and the north of Mewar, may origin ally have denoted "ridge-men," or dwellers on these rocky ridges in the desert. For I myself believe them to be a distinct people from the Megs, or Mogs, or Mags, or, more properly classically speaking, Magras of the Ararallis."1 page- 10-11
footnote at page 11
" 1' General Cunningham, however, I believe, considers the liters, and the Megs, or Mogs, or Magras, to be one and the same people; and that the name of Mer, or Mair, is an incorrect term invented by ourselves. Against this opinion 1 have the following facts, ascertained on the spot, to bring forward : —
The Mairs in the neighbourhood of the Banas River are called Mer by the country people who live in immediate proximity to them, and they appear to call themselves either Med or Mer (मेड), while the Magras of the Aravallis are called Mag, or Megs, or Mug, by the people of that region, who pronounce the name exactly like the English word mug, But, strange to say, the very same term is also applied, in that part of the country, to the Kanjar nats, who go about like gypsies and live in little temporary huts made of sirki, and are great thieves ; and it therefore becomes a question whether these wandering gypsy Mags are the same people as the settled Mags of the Aravallis. Moreover, there is a difference in physical appearance between the M'ers near the Banas Hiver and the Mags of the hill jungles; for the Mers somewhat resemble the Mmas in general appearance, while the Mags more resemble the Bhils."

footnoteat page-12
"[ Note. — Mr. Carlleyle has omitted the two most striking examples which I adduced as evidence that ner did not mean a hill fort, — namely, the great fortress of Bhatner, which was besieged by Timur, and the town of Sanganer, near Jaypur. Both of these places ars situated in an open plain. The Magras of the Aravalli range I take to be the Megallte of Pliny. — A. C]"

(At page 181 पर यहाँ प्राप्त सिक्को पर खुदे अक्षरों के अवधान पर विमर्श करते हुए वह लिखते है)-
"I have hitherto, in the preceding remarks, given my own opinions as to the history of Nagar, and the signification of the legends and names on the coins, for which no one else is responsible but myself. It now, however, becomes my duty to state that General Cunningham has also, in the course of correspondence, expressed certain opinions on the subject, which I think I may take the liberty of quoting here as the opinions of the respected chief of the Archaeological Survey on any archaeological questions what soever are always of importance and worthy of the greatest attention and consi deration. The following are General Cunningham's detached re marks, which I give seriatim, in the order in which they were received : — " Your coins are very small, but they are undoubtedly old, and there fore exceedingly interesting. The most puzzling thing about them is the fact that all the legends, and therefore all the names, begin with the same letter, m. I make out at least three distinct kinds —
Malavana jaya
Maru-----jaya
Mayo-----jaya

The first may be ' conqueror of Malava,' or Malwa ; the second ' conqueror of Maru,' or Marwar ; and the third, ' conqueror of Maga' [or Magra'~\, or the Aravalli Mountains, which are inhabited by the Magas [or Magras], whom we absurdly call Mors, although they call themselves Magas [Magras] — ? Megalle of Pliny. These three readings are consistent with one another, and would perhaps point to a single king of Ajmer and Chitor as the conqueror of Malwa, Maga, and Maru. One of the legends looks like Malavahu jaya, but I must have another strict scrutiny of them."
General Cunningham appears to have afterwards read the compound character, which he reads as hu, above nu (णु).
" I do not consider them older than the first or, perhaps, second century B. C, — that is, between 200 and 0 B. C. I look uponthem as Buddhist."
Again, in another later communication, he says : —
" The great mass of the coins belong to the tribe of the Malavanas, who are mentioned in the Mahabharat. The legends are — ' Jaya Malavana." ' The victorious Malavanas.' and ' Malavana + ajaya.' ' The invincible Malavanas.' " And the legends vary in alphabetical characters from, perhaps, B. C. 250 to A. D. 250. * * * I presume that Chitor and Ajmer and all that part of Rajputana must have belonged to the Malavanas. There are several, or even many, coins that do not belong to this tribe, such as those which apparently begin with Maru and Magoja ; but the great mass of your coins are of the Malavanas, with the name variously spelt, and with different types. * * * I suspect that the Malavanas may be the Malloi of Multan."

(मालवा के प्राचीन राजाओं को मुल्तान से यहाँ आया हुआ इंगित करते हुए यह बताते है की पिल्लनि के वर्णन में जिसे megallae कहा गया है, उनसे ही इनका निकास है, जिसका सम्बन्ध उसने मेगों से स्थापित किया)-
" In another still later communication, General Cunning ham corrects the name of the Magas to Magras, and iden tifies them with the Megallae of Pliny."
" On the above remarks I have the following comments to make."
"I do not see how the legend Jaya Malavana, or Malavana Jaya, can possibly signify " the victorious Malavanas," as, in the first place, it appears to me that Jaya is not an adjective, and cannot therefore mean " victorious;" but that it is a substantive, which simply means "victory" or "triumph." Secondly, the word Malavana is not in the plural, which would be Malavanas, but in the singular, as Malavana. But it appears to me that an anuswara may have been intended to be understood to follow the name, and that therefore the word might be read Malavanam, which would be in the genitive plural ; and, in that case, the whole legend might be read as Jaya Malavanam, or Malavanam Jaya, which would signify " the triumph, or conquest, of the Malavans. In the third place, I do not see why the Malavanas should be identified with the " Malloi " of such a distant place as Multan, when we have the country of Malwa so much nearer at hand."
Pages181 to 183
(और भी अन्य विश्लेषण देखा जा सकता है। दुर्भाग्य यह है की यहाँ इस दृष्टि से कोई उत्खनन आदि नहीं हुए। यह भी एक सर्वे मात्र की रिपोर्ट है।)
Reference:
ASI-
"A REPORT OF A TOUR IN EASTERN RAJPUTANA IN 1871-72 and 1872-78. "

BY- A. C. L. CARLLEYLE,

UNDER THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF MAJOR-GENERAL A. CUNNINGHAM, C.S.I., C.I.E.,

CALCUTTA:
OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF GOVERNMENT PRINTING.
Year of Publication- 1878.

हिंदी में दी गयी / की गयी टिप्पणियाँ मेरी।

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