Friday, November 7, 2014

87. Kathiawad Gujrat and Meghs - काठियावाड़ गुजरात और मेघ

काठियावाड़ गुजरात का हिस्सा था। विगत 18वीं-19वीं शताब्दी में वहां मेघों की कोई अच्छी स्थिति नहीं थी। "Historical, Geographical and Statistical Memoirs of Kattywar and of districts of Babriawar and Okhmundul" नामक दस्तावेज से कुछ संदर्भो पर ध्यान दीजिये। जिसमे कुछ रिपोर्ट्स दर्ज की गयी है। सन 1808 1853 आदि की भी रिपोर्टें है।
किसी बसावट के लिए क्या किया जाता था देखिये, पृष्ठ -26

"-------The proportion of other classes per hundred ploughs is as follows: — Two families of Sootars (carpenters), one to two of Lohars (blacksmiths), two of Dur- jees (tailors), two of Khoombars (potters), one to two of Mochees (shoemakers), two of Hujjams (barbers), four of Bhurwars (sheep and goatherds), eight to ten of Dhers (these act as curriers, and perform the rough vyork of the vil lage), three or four of Banians (shopkeepers), eight to ten of Pusaitas :* all these classes hang together, and their dealings become so much mixed up with one another, that when a Patel, or leading cultivator of influence, quits one place for another, a proportion of these will always accompany him : there will generally be two or three leading men among them, who act as leaders of the rest — the Banian, who advances grain for seed, and money for bul locks ; tlie man who, by money or by influence, can command the greatest number of ploughs ; and the most skilful of the artisans. All these classes must settle the term of their residence with the Durbar, but this is generally clone by the leading person or persons named, and they have to pay certain taxes, according to the nature of their trade, one of the most striking of which is called Wet, or service performed for the Chiefs without payment. A commu nity is thus got together, and as it increases in numbers it draws artisans and mechanics of a higher order, to suit the wants of a more advanced state of social existence. The cultivators, it will have been seen, have no property in the soil, which is exclusively that of the Chief.----" page-26
तत्समय वहां मेघों हेतु ढेड(dher) शब्द प्रचलित हो चूका था। अतः रिपोर्ट में उनके सम्बोधानार्थ 'ढेर(dher) शब्द का ही प्रयोग हुआ है।

नाथ संप्रदाय के सन्दर्भ में पहले उल्लेख किया जा चूका है कि ज्यों-ज्यों नाथ पंथी वैदिक हिन्दू धर्म में मिलते गए, त्यों-त्यों उन्होंने मेघों को चेला बनाने से परहेज करना शुरू कर दिया। इस रिपोर्ट के समय वहां की धूणी का बावा या पीर 'पीरनाथ' था। इस रिपोर्ट में भी उल्लेख है कि मुसल मान और ढेर चेले नहीं बनाये जाते। देखे पृष्ठ-32
"-------The manners and appearance of the Bawa Peearnath are prepossessing, whilst those of his Chela are the reverse. The ceremony of initiation is performed in youth. They receive from most of the Hindoo castes, not being particular about parentage, though ostensibly they neither accept Mahomedans nor Dhers. The ear is slit open in the centre to the length of an inch, and the wound kept open by a stick of Nem wood, wrapt round with the soft downy feather of a peacock's quill, and kept wet.----" page-32

इसी के पृष्ठ 39 पर ढेरों(of dhers) के व्यवसाय के बारे में उल्लेख है। बताया गया है की यह उनका मुख्य धंधा है-
"--------
37. Manufactures and Arts have nearly been annihilated by the united power of capital and machinery in England, and the invention of steam : those still existing are simple, and suited only to the wants of the population. Dungaree, both fine and coarse, is woven in almost every town by the Dhers, one of whose occupations it is considered ; but the Mehman tribe are also considerable manufacturers. Coarse woollens are woven in many parts of the country, especially in Dhorajee, where also carpets are made. Linen seems unknown. Silk is manufactured at Nuggur and Porebunder from the raw material imported from Bombay, but I doubt whether the specu lation has answered. Cloths are dyed all over the country, but those of Nowanuggur are the most prized. The carpenters, blacksmiths, and stone masons of Kattywar are equal in skill to those of any part of India, exclusive of the capitals; the blacksmiths are most prized who have immigrated from Kutch.-----"page-39

पृष्ठ 113 पर बंटवा राज्य(Nantes Estate) में भी मेघों (dhers) के कपड़ा बुनने के धंधे का उल्लेख-"----- VIII. A large quantity of cotton is grown in this Talooka; the usual grains are also grown, and a considerable quantity of grains are also grown, and a considerable quantity of --------. Coarse cotton cloths are manufactured by Mahomedans and Dhers"पेज-113

हल्लार जिले के वर्णन में (Hallar District ) देखें,पृष्ठ,115
"-------- VIII. The usual grains and cotton; silk is also manufactured, but of an inferior quality; coarse cotton cloths are made by Mahomedans and Dhers, and a considerable number of people are engaged as dyers." page-115

वादवा(Wadwa Estate) में उनके धंधे पर टिपण्णी देखे पृष्ठ-125- "-------The Dhers manufacture coarse cotton cloths ; a considerable number of people are employed as dyers.-----"

मुचु कांटा (Muchu kanta ) MorVI Estate पृष132्ठ "-----VIII. The usual grains and sugarcane are grown. Coarse cloths are manufactured by the Dhers and Mus sulmans."page-132

ठान या थान (Than Estate) में उनके बारे में उल्लेख, पृष्ठ -126."-------VIII. A large quantity of cotton is grown at Luckthur, and in the rest of Talooka the usual grains. The Dhers and Borahs make cloths of a coarse description. The earthenware made at Than is celebrated throughout the province." Page-126

पृष्ठ 296 पर मेघों के वेट-बेगार पर सामान्य विवरण"-----The practice of Vete, or compelling villagers to carry baggage without reward, is common throughout the Gaekwar dominions. In Guzerat certain people are appropria|ed for that purpose, and have established privileges, either in land or grain. In this Peninsula, however, no such practice having been known until the Muratha system was introduced, there is consequently no allowance whatever made for this kind of labour. The Raja of a district, if travelling through it, cannot press a coolee to carry his baggage, but the meanest and most insignificant individual in the Gaekwar or Company's service can press men and carts for his private convenience. The men so employed are taken away from the work to which they are indebted for their daily* subsistence. The practice is so totally at variance with the principles by which Europeans are guided, so hurtful to feelings of humanity, and so totally adverse to justice and good government, that I venture humbly to bespeak the commiseration of Government in behalf of this race of men, as far as is connected with our own camp. That " every man is worthy of his hire" is equally just and true, and I should hope that the feelings of Englishmen would require little to induce them, in such cases, to bestow sufficient food for the day, or for one meal at least." page-296-297
फुटनोटat page 296-"* The men pressed as coolies are chiefly Dhers, who gain a daily subsistence by weaving coarse cloth."

Reference:
"Historical, Geographical and Statistical Memoirs of the Provinces of Kattywar and Districts of Babariawar and okhamundal"
By: R. Hughes Thomas, George le Grand Jacob, D. A. Blame, Captain J. MacMurdo et.al.
Publisher: Bombay Education society, Bombay, 1856.

(In this documents various reports are included)

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