Friday, November 14, 2014

100. राजस्थान में बौध धर्म - 9वीं-10वीं शताब्दी

9वीं-10वीं शताब्दी तक वर्तमान राजस्थान में बौद्ध धर्म विद्यमान था। चंद वरदायी के साक्ष्य से यह बात प्रमाणित होती है। अजमेर के राजा बिसल देव के पुत्र सारंग देव द्वारा बौद्ध धर्म स्वीकार करने की घटना का वर्णन चंद ने किया है। जिसका मूलपाठ और अंग्रेजी अनुवाद दोनों यहाँ दिए जा रहे है।

"-- In this instance history, usually so silent in ancient India, steps in to help us. We know that the Buddhists were finally extirpated by the Brahmans about the ninth or tenth century of our era, just before the dawn of modern Indian literature. Brahmanism then resumed its sway, and gradually crushed out the hostile sect, though they still lingered on in some parts of India for a long time. Sarang Dev, son of Bisal Dev, King of Ajmer, in the ninth century,( He ascended the throne Samvat 821.) embraced Buddhism, but was argued back into the orthodox faith by the contemptuous remonstrances of his father, who urged that this vrg wrq, nashta gydn, or, as we should say, “exploded theory,” was not a becoming religion for a Rajput prince.-
" The passage occurs in the first book of Chand, and the story is probably historical, though, as usual with Chand, mixed up with much that is extravagantly legendary. Sarang Dev’s foster-brother, a bania, had been killed by a tiger while travelling through a forest, and the prince was so grieved that he turned Buddhist. The words are—

"अति दुचित्त भयौ सारंग देव।
नित प्रति करे अरिहंत सेव ।
बुध ध्रम्म लियो बांधे न तेग ।
मुनि स्रवन राज मन भौ उदेग।
बुल्लाई कुंवर सनमान कीन ।
किहि काज तुम इह धम्म लीन।
तुम छांडी सरम हम कहो बत ।
बानिक्क पुत्र हन तें दुचित्त ।
इह नष्ट ग्यान मुनिये न कान ।
पुरषातन भज्जे किती हान ।
तुम राज वंस राजनह संग ।
मृगया सर खेलो बन दुरंग ।
परमोध तजो बोधक पुराण ।
रामायण सुनह भारथ निदान।"

Very grieved was Sarang Dev, constantly he worships the Arhaut, he embraced the religion of Budh, he binds not on his sword ; hearing the news, the king's mind was distressed; he called the prince, and saluting him (said), Why have .you embraced this religion, abandoning shame tell me, are you grieved at the death of the hania’s son P Do not listen to this destroyed science, (by which) manliness flies away, fame is destroyed. You are of royal race, with kings hunt the deer in the far-stretching forest, abandon this delusion, be the Purans your guide, listen to the Ramayan and (Maha)bharat."—Chand, i., 72.
"--- At this time the Saiva form of Hinduism was being singularly mixed up with the newer and more attractive Vaishnava creed, and the Brahmans were rapidly resuming their long-lost sway over the popular mind. Now Buddhism had specially selected the vemaculars of the day as the vehicle for its teaching, and the Brahmans, in resuscitating their religion, naturally brought back the sacred Sanskrit. In the passage above cited Bisal Dev exhorts his son to have the Ramayan, Mahabharat, and Purans read to him, and in the same poem the bard recites the names and number of verses of the eighteen Purans as a means of purifying the souls of his listeners. The public readings and recitations of Sanskrit works must have familiarized the minds of the masses with the ancient forms of words, and no doubt the Brahmans did their best to foster the use of these ancient forms, as they do at the present day, so that gradually a large class of words in their pure Sanskrit shape got into circulation. These words, when once more current, naturally began to undergo the influences which are always at work upon human speech, and developed by degrees into the forms in which we now have them. This process, once begun, has continued to the present day." Pages 14 to 16

इसी तरह का एक प्रसंग मैंने KYH में पृथ्वीराज विजय महाकाव्य से भी दिया था। जिसमे पुष्कर में मेघों को पृथ्वीराज द्वारा हराए जाने का प्रसंग कश्मीरी पंडित जोन राज ने उस ग्रन्थ में किया था।
इन सभी प्रसंगों को मिलाईये ।
सन्दर्भ:
"A Comparative Grammer of Modern Aryans Languages of India"- Volume-1;

By: JOHN BEAMES,
.

TREBNER & C0., LONDON, 1872. Pp-14 to 16.

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